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万博娱乐注册

文章来源:SEO    发布时间:2019-10-27 05:24:50  【字号:      】

万博娱乐注册Development Research Center of the State Council of the Peoples Republic of China ByChengGuoqiang,DevelopmentResearchCenteroftheStateCouncil(DRC)AgriculturewasoneofthemostdifficultissuesinthenegotiationforChinasentryintotheWorldTradeOrganization(WTO)andoneofthe,theevaluationoftheimpactimposedonChineseagricultureduringthe10yearssinceChinasentryinineseagricultureinthepastdecade,weanalyzedandidentifiedthebasicexperiencegainedfromtheopeningupofChineseagricultureandtheissuescallingforattentionduringtheprocess,andputforththestrategicdirectionandpolicyoptio:Openingup,GrowthandStructuralChangeChinasentryintotheWTOandtheexpandedopening-upofChineseagri,inthepastdecade,Chinahascontinuedtopushforwardtheopening-upofagricultureintermsofscopeanddepth;activelybuiltupthecapacityformakingcoordinateduseofboththedomesticandforeignmarketsandresources;strivedtoimprovetheoverallquality,operationefficiencyandmarketcompetencyofagriculture;andprovidestrongsupportandguaranteeforthenationalfoodsecurity,thesupplyofmajorfarmproducts,thesteadyandrapidgrowthofthenationaleconomy,:ernofagricultureInthepastdecadesinceChinasaccessiontotheWTO,%,lessthanaquarteroftheworldaverageof62%,makingChinaoneofthecountrieswiththelowesttariffsforfarmproductsintheworld1;compliedwiththecommitmentsconcerningtariffquotaadministration,adoptedimportcontrolanddomesticmarketmeasuresonkeyfarmproductssuchasgrainsandcotton,aswellasmeansofagriculturalproductionsuchasfertilizers2;cancelledsubsidiesforfarmproductexpor%.Meanwhile,Chinahasactivelyencouragedtheagriculturalintroductionandtheutilizationofforeigninvestment,andlaunchedprogramsinintegrateddevelopment,processingandcirculationoffarmproductsandtechnologicalRD,whichhaveplayedapositiveroleinpromotingthedevelopmentofmodernagriculture,upgradingthestructureofthefarmproductprocessingindustry,ricultureandtheestablishmentofanopen,fairandreasonableframeworkforinternationalandbilateralagriculturalcooperation;exploredandimplementedthe“goingglobal”,includingprivateones,areactiveinoverseasinvestment,andhavelaunchedagriculturaldevelopmentandcooperativeoperationinSoutheastAsia,AfricaandSouthAmerica,formingasustained,stableandr,soa,ChinahaspromotedbilateraltradeliberalizationwithASEANandNewZealand;fullyparticipatedintheDohaRoundnegotiationstofacilitatetheestabli,Chineseagriculturehasbasicallyintegratedintotheinternationaltradesystem,withitsopening-upbeingbroadenedanddeepened,rehensiveproductioncapacityimprovedcontinuouslyInthepasttenyearsaftertheaccessiontotheWTO,Chinahastakenactivemeasurestodealwiththeimpactoffiercemarketcompetition,frequenttradefrictions,theinternationalfinancialcrisisandtheextremelyvolatilemarketoffarmproducts;managedtoaddressthechallengesoftheriseofthecostsofagriculturalproduction,declineofcomparativeinterests,andfrequentnaturaldisasters;,%,1%%from1998to2001beforeChinasaccessiontotheWTO(Table1).Table1ChangeoftheChineseEconomicStructure(%)from1978to2010ByLongGuoqiang,ResearchDepartmentofForeignEconomicRelationsofDRCInternationalTradeNo1,,withdeepeningeconomicglobalizationandwidelyappliedinformationtechnology(IT),serviceshave,includingficit,revealingthatChinaativeadvantages,itisofmajorimportanceforChinatoconstantlypromoteitsinternationalcompetitivenessintermsoftradeinservicesforitsforeigntraderestructuring,whichhasagreatstrategicsignificanceforchangingChina,developingtradeinservicesisnecessaryforboostingChinaestimporterofgoods,inglobalizationitsti,basicfactorsthathaveaneffectonthecountryscomparativeadvantagesarechanginginaprofoundmanner,wagestoordinaryworkersarerisingfastandtheinternationalcompetitivenessoflabor-intensiveproductsisweakening,butthequalityoflaborhasimprovedremarkably,workersyearsofeducationhaveincreasedgreatly,andthenumberofuniversitygraduateshasswelledrapidly–,ontheonehand,givefullplaytoChinasadvantageinhumanresources,,theaveragepayoftheserviceexportsectoris22%alcompetitivenessofChina,buttheoverallstrengthofindustrychains,thatdeterminestheinternationalcompetitivenessofacountry,wecaneffectivelyimprovetheoverallcompetitivenessofChinasmore,developingtradeinservicescanextendthevaluechainbywhichChinaparticipatesintheinternationaldivisionoflabor,andelevateChinaoftheglobalvaluechainofproduction,andextendingtowardsbothendsofthe“smilecurve”–RDservicesandprofessionalservices,twosectorsofhighvalueadded–representsthedi,developingtradeinserviceshelpsimproveChina,developingtradeinservicesisaneffectivewaytopromotethedevelopmentofChinael,,booststhetrainingofinternationaltalents,sharpenscompetitioninthedomesticservicemarket,,developinheexcessinternalcontrolthathasledtoinadequateopeningtotheoutsideworld,whileopeningupserviceindustriestotheoutsideworldwillhelpreform,developing,internaldemanddeterminesthelow-levelsupplystructureofserviceindustries,whilemakingfulluseofthemarketsofdevelopedcountrieshelpsachievetheeconomiesofscaleinhigh-endserviceindustries,,developingtradeinservingproblemforChina,,ithelpsoptimizetheindus,itisconducivetoenergyconservationandemissionsreducti,ittorthataffectstheefficiencyofChina,forinstance,logisticstakeuplessthan10%ofGDP,butitsnearly20%inChina–suggestingtosomeextentthelowefficiencyofChina,,thoughatageographicdisadvantageintermsofgoodsexport,arenotgeographicallyconstrainedtodeveloptradeinsomeservices;transactionsinserviceoutsourcingrequireonlyaccesstotheInternet,andprojectcontracting,exportoflaborservice,,weeninlandregionsandcoastalones,butalsobringmorejobsandincometouniversitygraduates,constructionworkers,1,ChinasforeigntradeinservicestotaledUS$,ranking4thintheworld,includingUS$(ranking4thintheworld)andUS$(ranking3rdintheworld).Between2004-2008,China%,,thegrowthrateofChina%in2008to-12%in2009,,%,,%,%.Figure1showsclearlythatChinasserviceexporthaswitnessedviolentfluctuations.Note:=domesticoutput/(domesticoutput+netimport)*100%.ItisencouragingtoseeChina,weshouldalsonoticethestraightris,,suchimpo,butalsothatofwheat,,,,%,%,itisrelatedtopriceflu,fastrisi,importedgrainproductssuchaswheatandcornarestillpricedlowerthantheirdomesticcounterpartsdespitethetransportationexpense,,alargepriceg,theafter-taxCIFprice(cost,insuranceandfreightprice)ofimportedwheatpertonwas150to350yuanlowerthantheportpriceofhigh-qualitydomesticwheatpertonandtheafter-taxC,,,,itisattincomehaveledtoconstantlybetterdiet,poultry,eggs,dairyproducts,aquaticproductsandediblevegetableoil,etc.,,proteinandfatinChinahassurpassedtheworld,therearesignificantchangesintheconsumptionstructureofgrain:thedemandforrice,wheatandothergrainproductsp,importedproductsledbysoybeanrapidlyincrease,a,beandregscanbeusedasfoddertomeetbreedingindustry,,enfrom40%to81%,eandregscanbeusedtoboostthedevelopmentoffeed-processingindustriesandbreedingindustries,effectivesupportfordevelopingthemodernbreedingindustryandimprovingthenationaldietarystructure.

,oftheinterviewedenterprises,25sawtheirsalesrevenuegrowingrapidly(byover10%),38sawtheirgrowingsteadily(by5%~10%),13sawtheirgrowingslowly(by0~5%)%,only1islistedand4arestate-owned,%%%oftheirtotalemployeesduring2007~2011,%,theave,9sawtechnicallevelsoftheirmanufacturingequipmentlivinguptointernationaladvancedlevelsand13sawtheirsreachingtheadvanceddomesticlevels,suggestingthatequipmenttechnologiesareofvitalimportancetoproductqualityandcompetitivepower,%ofthetextileenterprisesinChinawereshortofworkersinvaryingdegreesand,inthefirsthalfof2012,%,,17ofthe81surveyedtextileenterprisesthoughttheyhadsufficienthumanresources,yetmostoftheenterprisessaidthatitwasquitedifficultforthemtorecruitgeneralandtechnierelargeenterprises,%ofallsurveyedlargeenterprisesand,3ofthe9enterprisesalsomentionedtheyhaddifficultyrecruitingskilledworkersandthatthenewrecruitswerelesscapable,suggestingthatproblemslikelaborshortageandinabilitytoretainpersonnelexistatlargeandtheproblemsarenotmuch,6ofthe17enterprisesthatheldthattheyhadsufficienthumanresourcessawtheirsalesrevenueincreasingbymorethan10%inrecent3yearsand10sawtheirsupby5%~10%,%,suggestingthatenterpriseswithgoodbusinessperformancearelessboggeddowninseriouslaborsh,19weremedium-sizedandsmallandmicro-sizedenterprises,makingup76%,suggestingthatlargeenterprisesaremoreattractivetotalentedpeople.中原备用官网中国·甘肃 Basic Facts Figure1TypesofEconomicGrowthTrajectoryTheaboveclassificationmainlyfocusesontheeconomictake-offandthegrowthrate,,itisbelievedthatoncetakingoff,holeprocessofin,101economiesaroundtheworldhavesteppedintothegroupofmiddleincomecountries;andby2008,only13ofthemdevelopedtobehigh-incomecountries,completedtheirepicmissionofcatchingupandsucceededinnaturallandingathighincomelevels(theireconomicgrowthpatternisshownintherightpartofthesolidblacklineinFigure1).ThesesuccessfuleconomiesincludeJapan,SouthKorea,TaiwanofChina,HongKongSAR,PuertoRico,Mauritius,,witnessedeconomicstagnationorevenrecessionduetovariousreasonsduringcatchingup,andfellintothe"middleincometrap2"(theirgrowthpatternisshownbytheredlineinFigure1).Examplesincl-upprocesstherearetwodifferentscenarios:oneisanaturallanding,featuredwithsuccessfulindustrialization,slowdownoftheeconomicgrowthafterthecompletionofthecatching-upmissionandtheproduction(orgrowth)peaksofrepresentativeindustrialproductssuchasinfrastructure,housing,,,Germany,JapanandSouthKorea,whichcaughtupsuccessfullyaftertheWorldWarII,,whichmeansthemissionofcatchingupfailswhenthecatchingupprocessisinterruptedduetoproblemsintheeconomicsystem,developmentstrategy,andsocialdifferentiation,orforotherreasons,,000–6,,theeconomicgrowthslowsdownsharply–mostlybymorethan50%4–,,especiallysince2011,theChineseeconomyhastakenonsomenewcharacteristics,makingpeopleshowmoreandmoreconcernaboutthefactthatwhatalandingwillChinahaveinitseconomiccatchingupprocessandwillitbeanaturallandingorafallintothemiddleincometrap...Ifyouneedthefullcontext,"middleincometrap".Itroughlydescribessuchaphenomenon:whenacountrygetsridoftheMalthusianCycle,itseconomy,featuredwithindustrialization,willseethestartofeconomicgrowthinamodernsense;itsper-capitaaverageincomewillimprovesignificantlyinaperiodoftime,,itseconomystagnatesorrecedesforalongperiodandfailtogrowintoahig,Germany%;in1969whenitsper-capitaGDPreached10,440internationaldollars,,%.InJapan,%;andafteritsper-capitaGDPreached11,434internationaldollarsin1973,itseconomicgrowthdecelerated,and;from1973to1983,%.InSouthKorea,%;in1995whenitsper-capitaGDPreached11,850internationaldollars,itseconomicgrowthalsosloweddownevidently,%,from1981to2000,Brazil,ArgentinaandMexicoseconomyslippedintoprotractedstagnation,%,50%%respectivelyincomparisonwiththeaveragesduringtheirrapidgrowthperiod(1950-1980).Again,from1950to1975,theaverageannualGDPgrowthrateofformerSovietUnion,Hungary,%,%,%%respectivelywhileduringtheperiodfrom1976to2000,%(forformerSovietUnion,thefigurewastheaggregatesofallmembercountriesafteritsdisintegration),%,-%%respectively.

博E百投注专线Note:=domesticoutput/(domesticoutput+netimport)*100%.ItisencouragingtoseeChina,weshouldalsonoticethestraightris,,suchimpo,butalsothatofwheat,,,,%,%,itisrelatedtopriceflu,fastrisi,importedgrainproductssuchaswheatandcornarestillpricedlowerthantheirdomesticcounterpartsdespitethetransportationexpense,,alargepriceg,theafter-taxCIFprice(cost,insuranceandfreightprice)ofimportedwheatpertonwas150to350yuanlowerthantheportpriceofhigh-qualitydomesticwheatpertonandtheafter-taxC,,,,itisattincomehaveledtoconstantlybetterdiet,poultry,eggs,dairyproducts,aquaticproductsandediblevegetableoil,etc.,,proteinandfatinChinahassurpassedtheworld,therearesignificantchangesintheconsumptionstructureofgrain:thedemandforrice,wheatandothergrainproductsp,importedproductsledbysoybeanrapidlyincrease,a,beandregscanbeusedasfoddertomeetbreedingindustry,,enfrom40%to81%,eandregscanbeusedtoboostthedevelopmentoffeed-processingindustriesandbreedingindustries,effectivesupportfordevelopingthemodernbreedingindustryandimprovingthenationaldietarystructure.北京达意美施国际文化传媒有限公司 杭州耀阳公关广告有限公司绍兴市舜泽广告有限公司 大世界真人游艺Note:=domesticoutput/(domesticoutput+netimport)*100%.ItisencouragingtoseeChina,weshouldalsonoticethestraightris,,suchimpo,butalsothatofwheat,,,,%,%,itisrelatedtopriceflu,fastrisi,importedgrainproductssuchaswheatandcornarestillpricedlowerthantheirdomesticcounterpartsdespitethetransportationexpense,,alargepriceg,theafter-taxCIFprice(cost,insuranceandfreightprice)ofimportedwheatpertonwas150to350yuanlowerthantheportpriceofhigh-qualitydomesticwheatpertonandtheafter-taxC,,,,itisattincomehaveledtoconstantlybetterdiet,poultry,eggs,dairyproducts,aquaticproductsandediblevegetableoil,etc.,,proteinandfatinChinahassurpassedtheworld,therearesignificantchangesintheconsumptionstructureofgrain:thedemandforrice,wheatandothergrainproductsp,importedproductsledbysoybeanrapidlyincrease,a,beandregscanbeusedasfoddertomeetbreedingindustry,,enfrom40%to81%,eandregscanbeusedtoboostthedevelopmentoffeed-processingindustriesandbreedingindustries,effectivesupportfordevelopingthemodernbreedingindustryandimprovingthenationaldietarystructure.Development Research Center of the State Council of the Peoples Republic of China

ByRenZepingZhangLiqun,ResearchTeamon"StudyontheUrbanizationDevelopmentStrategiesintheProcessoftheBuildingofChineseModernRuralAreas"ResearchReportNo200,2011Chinaseconomicandsocialdevelopmenthasadvancedbyleapsandboundsoverthepast30yearssincereformandopeningup,andthecountry,%,,Chinahasaccelerateditseconomicrestructuring,improvedthelivingstandardofitspeople,advanceditsinstitutionalreformingoodorder,remarkablysteppedupitsin,sinceenteringthe21stcentury,araftofobstaclesareinthewayofChinasall-around,coordinatedandsustainabledevelopment,theinveteratestructuralproblemsandtheextensiveeconomicgrowthhavenotbeenchangedradicallyand,imbalanced,uncoordinatedandnon-sustainableissuesstillremaintheglaringproblemsinChina,Chinawilltakescientificdevelopmentasthekeynote,accelerationofthetransformationofthemodeofeconomicdevelopmentasthemainlineandthestrategicreadjustmentoftheeconomicstructureasthemaintseconomicdevelopmenthasbeenmainlycenteredonthegrowthofitsaggregateeconomicvolumeover60yearssincethefoundingofNewChina,Chinawill,inthecomingyears,enterintoaperiodofgreatchangeswiththepromotionofaggregateincreaseandstructuralreformtodevelopsimultaneously,equalstrsCurrentEconomicandSocialDevelopmentatPresentStageThemainbasisforthejudgmentofeconomicdevelopmentatvariousstagesincludeper-capitaincome,consumptionstructure,industrialstructure,levelofindustrializationandlevelofurbanization,laterperiodofindustrializationtothelaterperiodathepatternof"low-costadvantage—middle-andlow-endmanufacturingindustries—investment+production",ChinaisnowfacinganotherimportantopportunityofwhetherChinacansuccessfullystrideintothesecondwaveofeconomicgrowthfuelledbythepatternof"innovation-basedadvantage--high-endmanufacturing+servicesector--innovation+consumption",whichisacriticalmomentforthetransfor50yearsofpilotpractice,especiallysincereformandopeningup,changesofgreathistoricalsigni,China%.In2010,China,surpassingthatofJapanandplacingChina,China,,Chinasper-capitaGDPattheexchangerateofthesameyearreached5,880USdollars,.ChinahasrealizeditseconomictakeoffformorethantwodecadesTheoverviewofthemodernizationhistoryofvariouscountriesindicatesthatmajordevelopedcountrieshaveallundergonevariousstagesintermsofpreparation,takeoff,,Chinahasaccumulatedaraftoffavorableconditionsforsustainingitsrapideconomicgrowth,includingchangeofconsumptionstructureandofintermediatedemandtosupporttheacceleratinggrowthofdomesticdemand;theuneveneconomicdevelopmentleadingtochangeoftheindustrialstructureandtherestructuringoffundsandlaboramongindustries;increaseoffundsandlaborsupply;materialandtechnicalfoundationforsustainingthecontinuousgrowthofsupplyandtheinstitutionalandsocialenvironmentsforfacilitatingtheimprovementofthetotalfactorproductivity;astableandopeninternationalenvironmentandchangeoftheforeigntradestructureandofcomparativeadvantagesfuelledbyimportsubstitutionandtheexport-orientedstrategy,asindustrialstructure,strengthofthemanufacturingindustryandexportstructurethatChinahasalread:firstly,againstthebackdropoftherapidlyincreasingtotalfarmproduce,t%,withapopulationincreaseof300million,%%.Thirdly,afairlycompl,withtherapidincreaseoftheexportvolume,theproportionofsuchprimaryproductsasfarmproduceinexportcommoditieshasdeclineddrastically,,thefocusonmeetingbasicneedsbeingchangedtograduallyadaptingtoconsumptionupgradinganddemanddiversificationindicatesthechangeoftheeconomicstructure,gradingofindustrialstructureDuring1998~2010,Chinasindustrializationandurbanizationgotaccelerated,housingandtransportconsumptionupgradingwerepromoted,externaldemandgrewatahighspeedalongwiththelong-termprosperityoftheworldeconomyafterChinasintegrationintoglobalization,theadvantagesoftheresourceendowmentbroughtaboutthetransferofglobalindustries,andtheformationofdomesticandexternaldemandpu,thenumberoffast-growingindustriesincreasedc,thetransportationequipmentmanufacturingindustry,themetallurgicalindustry,thecoalindustry,thebuildingmaterialandothernonmetallicmineralindustries,theoilindustry,sEconomicGrowthDuring1981~2010The Status Quo of Chinas Electric Auto Industry sHRServiceIndustryInrecentyears,withitsdiversifyingservicescopesandcontentsanditsgrowingabilitytoservetheeconomicandsocialdevelopment,theHR(humanresource)serviceindustryhasconstantlyexpandedinChina,,therehadbeen28,356HRserviceagenciesthroughoutthecountry,employing336,,thenumberofpublicemploymentserviceagencieshadreached6,914,%oftotalhumanresourceserviceagencies;thenumberofpublicpersonnelserviceagencieshadreached2,939,%;thenumberofstate-ownedhumanresourceservicecompanieshadreached1,204,%;thenumberofprivately-operatedhumanresourceservicecompanieshadreached17,087,%;andthenumberofHongKong,Macao,Taiwanandforeign-investedhumanresourceservicecompanieshadreached212,%.Asoftheendof2012,allhumanresourceserviceagenciesacrossthecountryhadsetupatotalof21,000fixedrecruitment(exchange)venuesand9,206HRmarketwebsites,amongHRserviceworkers,variousprovinces(autonomousregionsandmunicipalitiesdirectlyundertheCentralGovernment)haveestab,111,012HRserviceworkershadobtainedtheprofessionalqualifications,%oftotalHRworkers,,dingconstantlyinChina,,includingjobrecruitmentservices,occupationalguidance,consultingservices,personnelappraisement,personneltraining,searchandinterviewofseniortalents,recruitmentfairs,HRinformationnetworks,humanresourceandsocialsecurityagencyservices,instooffercomprehensiveHRoutsourcingservicestocustomers,thusfacilitatingtheintegrat,,withthenon-publicsectorbeingthemainrecipientoftheservices;conducted180,000trainingcoursesofvarioustypes,;;;offeredhumanresourceoutsourcingservicesto430,000employingunits;headhuntingservicesfurtherdeveloped,with880,tcompetition,includingsuchstate-ownedenterprisesasFESCO,CIICandChinaStarCorpthatoperateonbigscale,aswellasprivately-operatedfirmsandSino-foreignjointventures,suchasJOBS-US,,htheoccurrenceof"laborshortage"and"employmentstraits"andthesharpeningofstructuralcontradictionsinHRmarket,theroleplayedbyHRserviceagenciesinhumanresourcemarketdistributionhasbeenfurtherstrengthenedandtheHRmarkethasbecomeamajorchannelfo,,;conducted208,000fieldrecruitmentfairs(exchanges)invarioustypes(ofwhich65,000fairswerespecificallyforcollegegraduatesand59,000fairswerespeciallyformigrantfarmerworkers),anincreaseof18,000over2011;,,untrywide,up26%ascomparedto2011;theagenciesprovidedlabordispatchservicesfor350,000employingunits,sHRServiceIndustryCurrently,someproblemsneedingpromptsolutionstillexistinChinasHRserviceindustry,whicharebeingexposedinfollowingaspects:ledThepublichumanresourceserviceagenciesfocusmostlyontraditionalpublicserviceitems,suchasrecruitment,archivesmanagement,,publicservicesinoriginalpersonnelandlabormarketshavebeengraduallyintegratedinsomeregions,,theintegrationofthepersonnelmarketandthelabormarketarenotyetinplaceinmanyplaces,incurringsegmentationamongregiona,thefunctionalpositioningofthepublicHRserviceagenciesremainsambiguous,officesandservicefacilitiesarebeingconstructedinanunbalancedwayandthepublicserviceefficiencyisunabletofullyurtheroptimizedFirstly,policiesformulatedbygovernments,ChinasoverallpolicysystemforpromotingHRserviceindustryremainsimperfect,andpoliciesformulatedbygovernmentsatvariouslevelsinfavoroftheHRserviceindustryarequitelimitedandthegovernmentinvestmentinp,,theHRserviceagenciesoftenfaceanumberofproblems,suchasfailuretorecognizequalificationsmutuallyandtherequirementforreapplyingforbusinesspermits,whichcauseslocalprotectionismandbusinessmonopolytoacertainextent,impedingHRserviceagencies,,someHRserviceagenciesconductrule-breakingoperationsandareinvolvedinviciouscompetitions,andsomecompaniesevenofferfalsemessagestodeceivejobseekers,infringingthelegitimaterightsandinterests,thereisnounifiedHRservicestandardizationsystem,gsbehindFirstly,,beinglessnormativeandinstructionaltotheindust,HRmarketsupervisorteamconstructiongotofftoalatestartinvariousprovincesandmunicipalities,,tradeorganizationsaremostly"government-incubated",withweakserviceawarenessandshortoffunds,andtheyplaylittleroleinindustryself-regulation,operationalguidanceandformulationofservicestandards.Development Research Center of the State Council of the Peoples Republic of China ByWuZhenjun,ResearchTeamon"PoliciesforYunnanDevelopmentofAgriculture,FarmersandRuralAreas"ofDRCResearchReportNo32,oductsBygivingplaytothecharacteristicsoftheresourcesandadvantagesoftheproductivebasesofitsdifferentregions,theprovinceofYunnanhasgivenscashcropsreached42millionmuin2010(15mumakeonehectare)andanoverallarrangementofrawmaterialbasesofcompetitiveagriculturalprod,theprovincehascementedandenhanceditscompetitiveindustrieswithtraditionalcharacteristics,suchastobacco,,,000tons,rank,~~20milliontons,withboththecultivatedareaandtheoutputmakingup16%orsoofthenationaltotal,,,%ofthenationaltotal,rankingtopinthecountry,andtheteaoutputhadreached207,000tons,%ofthenationaltotal,,theprovincehasacceleratedthed,thecultivatedareaofflowersinYunnanreached581,000mu,rankingfirstinthecountry,andtheoutputoffreshcutflowersrankedtopinthecountry,,thecultivatedareaofcoffeeinYunnanreached646,000mu,withaproductionof49,000tons,makingupmorethan99%and98%recentyears,thenumberofleadingenterprisesofagricultureindustrializationhasincnhavebeenbroughtupandtheg,thenumberofleadingenterprisesofagricultureindustrializationreached2012inYunnanandthenumberofvariouskindsoffarmproduceprocessingenterprisesabovethedesignatedsizereached1,omeinvolvedindistinctiveandcompetitiveindustries,fosteringenterpriseclusterswithdistinguishingfeatures,theto,344foreignenterprisesandover400enterprisesfromotherprovinceshavecometoYunnanforcultivation,breedingandprocessingofagriculturalproducts,whichwillfurtherpromotetheoveralllevelofthelorganizationlevelThenumberoffarmersprofessionalco-operativeorganizationshasincreasedrapidlyinYunnaninrecentyears,,thenumberoffarmersprofessionalco-operativeorganizationswidelyscatteredinvariousagriculturalindustries,suchastobacco,sugarandcoffee,hadincreasedto10,,,thenumberoffarmersprofessionalcooperativesregisteredatindustrialandcommercialauthoritieshadincreasedto7,lightoftheguidingprincipleof"VigorousGovernmentMotivation,CorrectMarketGuidance,ImpetusbyLeadingEnterprisesandActiveParticipationbyFarmers",theprovinceofYunnanhasdevotedmajoreffortstostartingtheconstructionofagriculturalstandardizationsyste,Yunnanhadformulatedandpromulgatedatotalof1,152localagriculturalstandardsandcriteria,,Yunnanhasconstructedatotalof134standardizationdemonstrationprojects,chcompetitiveanddistinctiveagriculturalindustriesascoffee,silkworm,flowers,youngforestplantsandspiceoil,,Yunnandevelopedatotalof4,658tobaccocooperativesand240,000productionhouseholds,,%oftheprovincialtotal,andrealized100%,suchprefecturesandmunicipalitiesasLincang,Dehong,PuerXishuangbannaandWenshanofYunnanhavevigorouslydevelopedsugarcanecultivationvillagesandteams,,,with57cultivationvillagesand154teamsbuilt,ofwhich,,coveringanareaof434,000mu,%.sputfortheffortstoadvancetheconstructionofthefarmproducecirculationmarket,improvedthemarketservicefunctions,initiallysetupthemodernfarmproducecirculationplatform,enhancedtheefficiencyoffarmproducecirculationandresolved,toacertainextent,thedifficultyfacingfarmers,cooperativesandagriculturalenterprisesinmarket"buyingandselling".Firstly,,Yunnanhassetupanaccumulativetotalof15,,Yunnanhadsetup213,000ruralcommercialnetworksunderthecountyleveland2,600farmersmarketshavebeenlistedasthestate-level"Double-HundredMarketProjects"(therenovationof100large-scaleagriculturalproductswholesalemarketsandthecultivationof100agriculturalenterprisesforcirculation-notesaddedbythetranslator).Yunnanhasinitiallyformedthemarketsystemwithwholesalemarketsplayingtheleadingrole,regionalmarketsasthemainstay,urbanandruraltrademarketsasthebasisandlarge-,,rmproducecold-chainsystem,theretraceablequalitysafetysystem,logisticsanddistributioncenters,inspectionandtestingcenters,safetymonitoringcenters,sewageandwastetreatmentcenters,,Yunnanha,thecommercialdepartmentsofYunnanhaveactivelyorganizedandstartedtheconnectionofagriculturalproductswithsupermarkets,enablingmorefarmproducecirculationenterprises,farmersco-operativeorganizationsandsupermarketstoparticipateintheaforesaidconnection,soastoimprovetheefficiencyinfarmproducecirculation.

ByHanJun,DevelopmentResearchCenteroftheStateCouncil(DRC)ResearchReportNo1,2012Chinabeganruraltaxreformin2000,,,,designedtofundamentallyrectifyrampanttaxesandadministrativechargesinruralareasandalleviatefarmersburden,promptedpublicfinancetofullycoveragriculture,ruralareasandfarmers,triggeredamajorreformofruralsocialundertakingsandpublicservicesupplymechanisms,becameabreakthroughpointforreformingthedualsystemthathadseparatedurbanandruralareas,andushereders,farmers,allsortsofunreasonablefundraising,levie,unreasonablefundraisings,leviesandadministrativechargeswereregardedbyfarmersas"bottomlesspits"asthesetaxesa,therelativetaxandfeeburdenvariedwidelybeces,farmerswithapercapitaannualnetincomeof500yuanorlessthan1,%%useofexcessivelyhighfarmers,thissystemenabledthegovernmenttoexcessivelycollectruralsurplusfu,thissystemprovidedtoolittlebasicpublicproductsandse,ruralpublicproductsweremainlyprovidedbygrass-rootsgovernmentsandcollectiveorganizationsorbyfarmerswiththeirownraisedfunds,edandthefiscalresour,thegovernmentsbelowtheprovinciallevelcontinuedtocentralizetheirfi,andfinallytotownandtownshipgovernments,burdenbecamea"chronicdisease",viciousincidentsarisingfromfarmersburdenincreasedyearafteryearandexcessivelyheavyfarmersburdenbecameamajorproblemthatadedthetaxsystemthatappliedbothtoagriculture,ruralareasandfarmersandtoindustry,commerce,,eitherdevelopedonesinEuropeandAmericaordevelopingonessuchasIndia,agriculture-relatedtaxesareallscatteredinvarioustaxtypes,whichgiveequal,Chinastaxsystemhadremainedadualpattern:,themainpolicygoalwastorectifyrampant,thepolicyguidanceforruraltaxreformwasguidedby"alleviation,standardizationandstabilization".Inotherwords,alladministrativechargeswereabolishedandconsolidatedintounitaryagriculturaltaxandtherateofagriculturaltaxwasgraduallyloweredsoastoalleviatefarmers,whichcomprisedboththecommodsengagedinagriculture,,ithaddegradedintoafixedlandtax,ormoreaccurately,,therateofagriculturaltaxwassetatnomorethan7%ofthetotallandoutputinanormalyearandtherateofsurchargewassetatnomorethan20%,%,actuallyimplementedinmostplaces,wasundulyhighandbeyondtheenduranceoffarmerswhencomparedwiththeagriculturaltaxinChina%taxpaymentnearlyextortedallsurplusofgra,thedualtaxsystemrespectivelyforurbanandruralareasisaninstitutionalarrangementtoexploitagriculture,ruralareasandfarmersinordertosupportcities,,theseexcessivelyheavyfarmersburdencouldbefundamentallysolvedonlywhenalltaxesexclusivelytargetedonfarmerswereabolished,whenthethousand-year-long"imperialgraintax"wasbroughttoanend,whenfarmersreceivedequaltaxtreatment,,ruraltaxreformsoonenteredintoastageofgraduallyreduche2ndSessionofthe10thNationalPeoplesCongress,heannouncedforthefirsttime,atotalof28provinces,autonomousregionsandprovincial,thestatedidnotimmediatelyintroducepersonalincomet,Chinabasicallyunifiedthetaxstatusofagricultureandfarmerswiththatofotherindustriesandsocialgroups,andfundamentallyremovedtaxsy,,,Chinashouldlessenagriculture-relatedtaxburdenforaconsiderabletimetocomewithintheframeworkofaunifiedurban-ruraltaxsystem.白金会足球网开户Agricultural Internet of Things Has Bright Prospects ——Ananalysisofeconomicsituationinthefirsthalfof2012andprospectsforthewholeyearDRCTaskForceonAnalysisofEconomicPerformanceInthefirsthalfof2012,theeconomicperformanceinChinacontinueditsdownwardtrend,characterizedbymarkedfluctuations,declinedbenefits,increasedrisksandunstableexpectations,sandvolatileglobaleconomyandmoreimportantly,itreflectstheoverlayeffectsoftheshort-termdestockinganddeleveraging,andthetransitie-tuning,,forthcomingmacro-controlshouldsticktothegeneralprincipleof"makingprogresswhilemaintainingstability"topreventhigherrisksofeconomicbubblearisingfromover-stimulationan,greatattentionshouldbegiventothelinkagebetweenshort-termandmedium-andlong-termpolicieswhileeffortsinsystemreformandinstitutionalinnovationshouldbemultipliedtounleashgrowthpotential,promotesmoothtransitioninthecourseofeconomicgrowth,sEconomicPerformanceintheFirstHalfof2012Sincethebeginningoftheyear,domesticandexternaldemandgrowthhassloweddown,withdecreasedproductionvitalityandincompletecapacityutilization,andeconomicoperationcontinueditsdownwardtrend,.Short-termdrasticfluctuationsinexportFromJanuarytoMay2012,China,%%%,theLaborDayandtheDragonBoatFestival,suchwidefluctuations,whichhavebeenveryrareinrecentyears,canbeattributedtothefollowingreasons:thevolatilityoftheEuropeaneconomy,set-backsininternationaleconomicrecovery,instabilityofmarketexpectationsandthetendencyofshort-termordersinChina,theexportofphotovoltaic,chemicalfertilizerandnewele,asChinaseconomicperformancehasbecomeanimportantindicatorfortheoutsideworldtotakestockoftheglobaleconomyandbulkcommodityprices,thecontractionofdomesticdemandandtheslowdowninimportgrowthhavealsoindirectnuary,thedecelerationinthegrowthrateofChinasindustrialvalue-addedoutput,majorindustrialproductionandpoweroutputhasonthewholeexceededthedeclineininvestment,nterprises,whichheldpessimisticexpectationsoffutureeconomicgrowth,hadaccordinglydecreasedtheinventoered,monetaryconditionsimprovedandmarketinterestratescontinuedtodecline,,medium-andlong-termloansaccountedforasignificantlylowerproportionthanthehistoricalaverageandtheasset-liabilityratioofenterprisesalsodecreased,indicatingthattheenterpriseslackmotivationtomakeinvestment,lindustries,theproblemofovercapacityhasextendedfromsteel,electrolyticaluminium,cementandautomobilesectorstothecoke,calciumcarbide,ironalloy,coppersmelting,,duetoavarietyofstimuluspoliciestoboostinvestmentinmanyareas,productioncapacityexpandedrapidlyandtheindustriesofcarbonfibre,windpower,polycrystallinesilicon,ineincorporateprofitswhilethebusinessmodelwascha,%overthesam%;%,%tfivemonthsof2012,up-scaleindustrialvalue-addedoutputintheeast,northeast,%,%,%%,withitsroleinboostingtheoveralleconomysignificantlyweakened;thegrowthrateofthecentralregioncontinuedtodecline,gdirectorsofprovincialandmunicipalresearchcenters,theeconomicsi,owingtothedeceleratingexportgrowth,industrialproductionfelldrasticallyinareasclusteredwithexport-orientedindustries;economicgrowthandefficiencybothdroppedsignificantlyinprovinceswhereresource-basedindustriesandheavychemicalindustriestakeupahighproportion;economicvitalitypickedupinareasconcentratedwithrelocatedenterprises;andregionswhereindustrialtransformationandupgradingmmecitiesNationally,thegrowthrateofnewhousingconstructionhasbeenhigherthanthatofpropertysalesfor25consecutivemonths,andinvestmentgrowthinrealestatehasbeenfastert,,,againstthegeneraldownwardtrend,ductionintherealestatepurchasecosthastosomeextentchangedpeopleundedsignificantly,whichgaverisetotheincreasinglyprominentproblemofi,thepotentialproblemofhousingpricereboundcannotbeignored.




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